Book-based art by Pam Langdon
Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes)
…a small species of bobtail squid native to the waters of the central Pacific, and is most common off of the Hawaiian and Midway islands. Hawaiian bobtail squid are usually found near the bottom where they hunt and feed on a myriad of shrimp species. Like other bobtail squid E.scolopes has a light organ which functions due to a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria A.fischeri, the bacteria are fed on a solution by the squid and in turn help hide the squids silhouette with light. The squid are not born with these bacteria and must acquire them directly from the environment by using a mucus. Once the bacteria is inside the squid the bacteria is fed and helps the squid stay hidden via counter-illumination. Despite all the effort that the squid goes through to collect the bacteria it jettisons most of them daily, via a process called venting. This is done because being bioluminescent is costly and it is far more efficient to simply expel the bacteria when the squid is resting and does not need them.
Earthrise filmed during the Apollo 10 mission, 1969.
In mathematics, a minimal surface is a surface that locally minimizes its area. This is equivalent to having a mean curvature of zero. The term “minimal surface” is used because these surfaces originally arose as surfaces that minimized total surface area subject to some constraint. Physical models of area-minimizing minimal surfaces can be made by dipping a wire frame into a soap solution, forming a soap film, which is a minimal surface whose boundary is the wire frame. However the term is used for more general surfaces that may self-intersect or do not have constraints.
Art by Paul Nylander.
It’s all about the particles in the tattoo ink’s pigment says Dr. Anne Laumann, MBChB, a professor of dermatology at Northwestern University.
Tattoo application uses a mechanized needle to puncture the skin and inject ink into the dermis or second layer of skin just below the epidermis. Since the process involves damaging the skin, the body responds with white blood cells which attempt to absorb the foreign particles and dispose of them in the blood stream.
“The reason pigment stays there is because the pigment particles are too big to be eaten by the white cells, so they just sit there,” Laumann says.
Tattoos have become increasingly popular in recent years. According to a 2010 Pew Research Report, approximately 40 percent of Americans between the ages of 18 and 29 have at least one tattoo.
The problem with tattoos is exactly what makes them so appealing—their permanency. “If you have the name of your boyfriend on there and then you marry somebody else, that’s a problem,” Laumann says.
Tattoos also tend to become problematic with age. Ink can become blurred if injected too deeply into the skin, causing the pigment to migrate beyond the intended area. Fading and distortion due to changes in body shape are also common problems with tattoos. Permanent makeup—or tattoos that resemble eyeliner or other makeup—is a prime example of how these problems can lead to dissatisfaction years after the ink is applied because skin sags and changes shape with age.
“The problem with that is as you get older the shape of the fold of the skin changes,” Laumann says. “So not only does it bleed a bit because the pigment moves gradually over time and so those will tend to become sort of smoky edges, but also the whole line might become a little distorted over the years.”
When a tattoo is no longer desirable, whether it’s faded or causing a bad case of buyer’s regret, you can burn it or cut it out—but the safest and most effective method is a laser treatment.
Spot the math error (Mathematical fallacy).
Yes, you can cheat and look at the solution here.
Have nice math riddle for the day if you’re up for it :)